The Physics of Bank Shots
Released: 3/10/2011 3:45 PM EST
Source: North Carolina State University
New research by engineers at North Carolina State University show that you had a better chance of scoring that particular game-winning bucket with a bank shot than with a direct shot.
After simulating one million shots with a computer, the NC State researchers show that the bank shot can be 20 percent more effective when shooting at many angles up to a distance of about 12 feet from the basket. Bank shots are also more effective from the “wing” areas between the three-point line and the free-throw lane. However, straight-on shots – those corresponding to the area around the free-throw line – from further than 12 feet are not as well suited for bank shots.
The researchers also found the optimal points where the simulated made baskets were aimed. The results show the optimal aim points make a “V” shape near the top center of the backboard’s “square,” which is actually a 24-inch by 18-inch rectangle which surrounds the rim. Away from the free-throw lane, these aim points were higher on the backboard and thus further from the rim. From closer to the free-throw lane, the aim points were lower on the backboard and closer to the rim.
The researchers also discovered that if you imagine a vertical line 3.327 inches behind the backboard and found where it crossed the aim point on the “V” shape on the backboard, you’d find the optimal spot to bank the basketball to score a basket.
“Basketball players can’t take a slide rule out on the court, but our study suggests that a few intuitive assumptions about bank shots are true,” says Dr. Larry Silverberg, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at NC State and the lead author of a paper describing the research. “They can be more effective than direct shots, especially from certain areas of the court – and we show which areas on the court and where the ball needs to hit the backboard.”
The researchers made a few assumptions while conducting the study. They used a men’s basketball, which is slightly bigger and heavier than a women’s basketball; launched the simulated shots from 6, 7, and 8 feet above the ground; and imparted 3 hertz of backspin – which means three revolutions per second – on the shots. The latter variable was shown in previous research to be optimal for successfully converting a free throw.